SQL AND, OR and NOT Operators

SQL AND, OR and NOT Operators : SQL AND, OR and NOT Operators are used to filter records. The AND and OR operators are used to filter records based on more than one condition.

The WHERE clause can be combined with AND, OR, and NOT operators.

The AND and OR operators are used to filter records based on more than one condition:

  • The AND operator displays a record if all the conditions separated by AND is TRUE.
  • The OR operator displays a record if any of the conditions separated by OR is TRUE.

The NOT operator displays a record if the condition(s) is NOT TRUE.

AND Syntax

SELECT column1, column2, …
FROM table_name
WHERE condition1 AND condition2 AND condition3 …;

OR Syntax

SELECT column1, column2, …
FROM table_name
WHERE condition1 OR condition2 OR condition3 …;

NOT Syntax

SELECT column1, column2, …
FROM table_name
WHERE NOT condition;

 

Demo Database

Below is a selection from the “Customers” table in the Northwind sample database:

CustomerID CustomerName ContactName Address City PostalCode Country
1 Alfreds Futterkiste Maria Anders Obere Str. 57 Berlin 12209 Germany
2 Ana Trujillo Emparedados y helados Ana Trujillo Avda. de la Constitución 2222 México D.F. 05021 Mexico
3 Antonio Moreno Taquería Antonio Moreno Mataderos 2312 México D.F. 05023 Mexico
4 Around the Horn Thomas Hardy 120 Hanover Sq. London WA1 1DP UK
5 Berglunds snabbköp Christina Berglund Berguvsvägen 8 Luleå S-958 22 Sweden

 

AND Example

The following SQL statement selects all fields from “Customers” where country is “Germany” AND city is “Berlin”:

Example

SELECT * FROM Customers
WHERE Country=’Germany’ AND City=’Berlin’;

 

Output

Number of Records: 1

CustomerID CustomerName ContactName Address City PostalCode Country
1 Alfreds Futterkiste Maria Anders Obere Str. 57 Berlin 12209 Germany

 

 

OR Example

The following SQL statement selects all fields from “Customers” where city is “Berlin” OR “München”:

Example

SELECT * FROM Customers
WHERE City=’Berlin’ OR City=’München’;

Output

Number of Records: 2

CustomerID CustomerName ContactName Address City PostalCode Country
1 Alfreds Futterkiste Maria Anders Obere Str. 57 Berlin 12209 Germany
25 Frankenversand Peter Franken Berliner Platz 43 München 80805 Germany

 

 

NOT Example

The following SQL statement selects all fields from “Customers” where country is NOT “Germany”:

Example

SELECT * FROM Customers
WHERE NOT Country=’Germany’;

Output

Number of Records: 7

CustomerID CustomerName ContactName Address City PostalCode Country
2 Ana Trujillo Emparedados y helados Ana Trujillo Avda. de la Constitución 2222 México D.F. 05021 Mexico
3 Antonio Moreno Taquería Antonio Moreno Mataderos 2312 México D.F. 05023 Mexico
4 Around the Horn Thomas Hardy 120 Hanover Sq. London WA1 1DP UK
5 Berglunds snabbköp Christina Berglund Berguvsvägen 8 Luleå S-958 22 Sweden
7 Blondel père et fils Frédérique Citeaux 24, place Kléber Strasbourg 67000 France
8 Bólido Comidas preparadas Martín Sommer C/ Araquil, 67 Madrid 28023 Spain
9 Bon app’ Laurence bihans 12, rue des Bouchers Marseille 13008 France

 

 

Combining AND, OR and NOT

You can also combine the AND, OR and NOT operators.

The following SQL statement selects all fields from “Customers” where country is “Germany” AND city must be “Berlin” OR “München” (use parenthesis to form complex expressions):

Example

SELECT * FROM Customers
WHERE Country=’Germany’ AND (City=’Berlin’ OR City=’München’);

 

Output

Number of Records: 2

CustomerID CustomerName ContactName Address City PostalCode Country
1 Alfreds Futterkiste Maria Anders Obere Str. 57 Berlin 12209 Germany
25 Frankenversand Peter Franken Berliner Platz 43 München 80805 Germany

 

The following SQL statement selects all fields from “Customers” where country is NOT “Germany” and NOT “USA”:

Example

SELECT * FROM Customers
WHERE NOT Country=’Germany’ AND NOT Country=’USA’;

 

Output

Number of Records: 5

CustomerID CustomerName ContactName Address City PostalCode Country
2 Ana Trujillo Emparedados y helados Ana Trujillo Avda. de la Constitución 2222 México D.F. 05021 Mexico
3 Antonio Moreno Taquería Antonio Moreno Mataderos 2312 México D.F. 05023 Mexico
4 Around the Horn Thomas Hardy 120 Hanover Sq. London WA1 1DP UK
5 Berglunds snabbköp Christina Berglund Berguvsvägen 8 Luleå S-958 22 Sweden
7 Blondel père et fils Frédérique Citeaux 24, place Kléber Strasbourg 67000 France

 

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