Parts Of Speech


Parts Of Speech

  • The parts of speech describes how one must use various terms in constructing an English sentence without errors.  The following are the parts of speech:
  • All the words in English language can be placed under one of the eight parts of speech.

 

The eight parts of speech are:

  1. Noun: A naming word.

Eg. Chennai, Gupta, computer, hope

  1. Pronoun: A word that is used instead of a noun.

Eg. I, we, you, us, they, anybody, somebody

  1. Verb: An action word.

Eg. Run, sleep, speak, think, learn.

  1. Adjective: A word that describes a noun.

Eg. City – word,  beautiful city; beautiful is a describing word; this describing word is adjective.

  1. Adverb: A word that gives us information about a verb.

Eg. He spoke politely.

      The word ‘politely’ tells us how he spoke. It describes an action. It is an adverb.

  1. Preposition: Words like “in”, “into”, “on” etc.

Eg. He came into the room.

  1. Conjuction: A word that links word or sentences.

Eg. Because, but, and.

  1. Interjection: Words or phrases that express strong feelings or emotions.

Eg. Oh God! , Damn it! , Oh nice! , Great!

Noun

Proper Noun:

Names of individual persons, places and things.

                   Eg. John smith, thirupathi, the white house.

Common Noun:

Names of classes of things.

                   Eg. Man, child, horse, car etc.

Collective Noun:

Names of groups of things.

                   Eg. A group of monkeys – a troop of monkeys.

                    A large group of people – a crowd, mob.

             A group of members – a committee.

Abstract Noun:

Names of ideas, concepts, state of mind/heart.

                   Eg. Honesty, cowardice, confusion, love, wisdom, courage.

Material Noun:

Names of materials.

                   Eg. Iron, gold, wood.

Pronouns

Kinds of Pronouns

Subject pronouns:

I, we, you, he, she, it, they.

                   Eg. I don’t smoke.

                         She is beautiful.

Object pronouns:

Me, us, you, him, her, it, them.

                   Eg. We gave them some money.

     He gave it a kick.

Possessive Pronouns:

Mine, ours, yours, his, hers, theirs.

                   Eg. The key is mine.

                          The responsibility is theirs.

Reflexive/emphatic pronouns:

Myself, ourselves, yourself, yourselves, himself, herself, themselves, itself.

                   Eg. I learnt hindi myself.

                         He located the house himself.

                        Used like this, the pronouns mean without anybody’s help. Here the pronouns are called emphatic pronouns.

                   Eg. He hurt himself.

                         She almost killed herself.

          The pronouns like himself, herself in such usage are called the reflexive pronouns.

General pronouns:

Somebody, someone, anybody, anyone, anything,nobody, no one, none, nothing, everybody, everyone, everything, all, any,some, few,a few, little, a little, both, either, neither.

                   Eg. Both knew what would happen.

                         All are happy.

                         Nobody knows.

Adjectives

Kinds of Adjectives

Quality of a person:

          Eg. Affectionate uncle

                   Adamant child

                   Friendly neighbor

                   Brave soldier

                   Clever boy

Nature of a Place:

          Eg.    Narrow road

                   Slippery bathroom

                   Remote village

                   Spacious hall

                   Crowded city

Quality of things:

          Eg.    Fresh vegetables

                   Tender coconut

                   Dirty clothes

                   Rotten eggs

Variety of information:

          Eg.    Dark night

                   Rough ride

                   Responsible person

Moods and feelings of people:

          Eg.    Angry man

                   Happy person

                   Sad face

                   Lovable girl

End with ‘ing’:

          Eg.    Charming girl

                   Interesting story

                   Cunning fox

                   Boring journey

Colour of something:

          Eg.    Blue car

                   Black hair

                   Brown eyes

                   Red tape

Verbs

Two types of verbs:

  1. Regular verbs(weak verb)
  2. Irregular verbs(strong verb)

Regular verbs:

These verbs take ‘d’ or ‘ed’ for past forms.

Present

Past

Ask

 

asked

 

Type  

typed

 

Love

loved

 

Irregular verbs:

These verbs do not take ‘d’ or ‘ed’ in the past.

Present

past
         Become        became
          Arise          arose
Bear

bore

Adverbs

Kinds of adverbs

Adverbs of manner:

          Eg.    The train moves slowly

                   He sing melodiously

Adverbs of place:

          Eg.    He sing at the Nehru stadium

                   He left the keys on the table

Adverbs of time:

          Eg.    He sang last night

                   He left at 5 am

Prepositions

Prepositional phrases

A group of words used with a preposition is called a prepositional phrase.

                   Eg.    In Mumbai

                             At home

                             At ease

                             Out of order

Conjuction

It is a words that join or link sentences.

                   Eg.    He went late to office.

                             He missed the bus.


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